What sleep disorders do we know?

Did you know?

Most patients feel that they have no health problems if they are overly sleepy during the day, as long as the disease is not seriously endangering in everyday life.

There are many more sleep disorders than we think. Insomnia is not the only sleep disorder. Sleep disorders is also excessive daytime sleepiness.

Due to shift work, on-call duties and overseas flights, a third of people suffer from various sleep disorders. This is an issue not discussed about enough in public. Most patients feel that they have no health problems if they are overly sleepy during the day, as long as the disease is not seriously endangering in everyday life. Patients can fall asleep at the workplace, during a conversation, as car drivers, during meals, while walking...

Sleep disorders (insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness...) can be recorded in the sleep diary (in slovene language). Using the completed diary, your doctor will assess your health easier and help you.

The International Classification divides sleep disorders into 8 main types according to changes in the basic sleep pattern.


Insomnia is a disorder when an individual states sleep problems. Awakening at night or early morning waking are characteristic signs of insomnia.

Breathing disorders in sleep

Breathing disorders in sleep are disorders when an individual states excessive daytime sleepiness and when the relatives usually experience frequent breaks in breathing during sleep (apnea). The most common disorders are the obstruction apnea, the cause of which is the upper respiratory arrest, and central apnea, the cause of which is the central respiratory disturbance. When only a partial upper respiratory arrest occurs, the disorder in question is hypopnea and apnea when spontaneous breathing pauses (lasting at least 10 seconds) occur during sleep. In addition, there is a reduced saturation of oxygen in arterial blood, which accompanies breathing pauses.


Hypersomnia is an excessive daytime sleepiness that occurs in normal night sleep. It means incapacity to remain alert during the day. The most common central hypersomnia disorders are: narcolepsy with cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia (hypersomnia of unknown cause).

Circadian rhythm disorders

Circadian rhythm disorders are sleep disorders based on the 24-hour cycle. These are disorders of overtaking and lagging of the circadian rhythm, and a non-24-hour sleep cycle. They can also be caused by changes from the environment (for example, overseas flights, shift work).


Parasomnias are disorders when adverse events occur. They can occur during sleep (nightmares), during transitions between individual sleep periods or as periods of being awake during sleep (sleepwalking, talking while sleeping, behavioural disorders).

Sleep movement disorders

Sleep movement disorders are motor disorders in sleep. The most frequent are: periodic limb movements during sleep and restless leg syndrome when an individual feels an urgent need to move his legs before going to sleep. Bruxism or clenching teeth is a rhythmic movement disorder in shallow sleep (a certain motor pattern is repeated).

Isolated symptoms

Sleep disorders include isolated symptoms occurring in individuals who, for example, sleep more (over 10 hours) or less (under 5 hours) per night per night, snore or have a hypnagogic leg trembling that occurs just before going to sleep.

Other sleep disorders

Other sleep disorders include organic and psychiatric sleep disorders.

Sleep diary (in slovene language)